Aluminum, which is now within reach, used to be a 'Royal Family'

by:Zeyi     2021-08-05
In the 21st century, aluminum is a common metal, ranging from daily-use cans to key components of aviation equipment. In fact, the aluminum we are accustomed to now was actually a special supply from the royal family a hundred years ago? It goes hand-in-hand with all kinds of rare treasures.   The discovery of aluminum is recognized in the world by the German chemist Weiler in 1827. In 1825, the Danish scientist Oster published an article saying that he extracted a silver-white metal with a shape and luster a bit like tin, but because he was busy with his own electromagnetic research, and the metal aluminum extracted by his method was not It's pure, and the magazine's popularity is not enough. This experiment did not cause an uproar. But his friend Wyler learned of this experiment and was very interested, so he worked hard based on this experiment. It took two years to finally extract metal aluminum powder. Then, he began to work on extracting a dense aluminum block, and it took 18 years to finally succeed, and the same method was used to make metal beryllium. In 1854, the French chemist Deville mixed bauxite, charcoal, and table salt, and then heated it with chlorine gas to obtain sodium chloride and aluminum chloride double salt, and then melted with excess sodium to obtain metal aluminum, but sodium was used as The cost of aluminum produced by reducing agent is more expensive than that of gold. Although the industrialized production of aluminum has been realized, the price confirms that it was only a gadget of princes and nobles at that time.   Because aluminum is so valuable, at the time, aluminum was regarded as a rare treasure. The French emperor Napoleon III was a man of great vanity. He ordered officials to make an aluminum crown for himself to attend a grand banquet. At the same time, he used a set of aluminum tableware in the banquet, while other guests could only use gold and silver. Make tableware to show your nobility. At the Paris Exposition in 1855, a small piece of aluminum was exhibited, with the note: Silver from rare earths, and placed next to the most precious jewelry. In 1889, the Russian Czar gave him an aluminum trophy in recognition of the chemist Mendeleev's achievements in inventing the periodic table of elements.   As we all know, aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust, accounting for 7.45% of the total mass of the earth's crust, but why was aluminum products so expensive at that time? It is precisely because of the very active chemical properties of aluminum that general reducing agents are powerless, so it was quite difficult to smelt aluminum at that time. After more than 100 years of hard work by more than a dozen scientists, pure aluminum was produced for the first time, and aluminum officially entered thousands of households.  The invention of electrolytic aluminum technology is indispensable for the realization of large-scale production of aluminum.   In 1884, a young student named Hall in the Department of Chemistry at Oberlin College in the United States heard a professor accidentally say: No matter who can invent a low-cost aluminum smelting method, he will get ahead. This made Hall realize that only by inventing a cheap aluminum smelting method can aluminum be brought to millions of households. Hall made use of an early discovery, that is, passing an electric current into the molten metal salt can deposit the metal ions on the cathode, thereby separating the metal ions, and use the molten cryolite as the refined alumina With the solvent, carbon is used as the cathode, electric current is passed through the porcelain crucible, and finally a handful of metal aluminum balls are successfully electrolyzed, announcing the success of the aluminum electrolysis method. Today, these aluminum balls are treasured in the showroom of American Aluminum Corporation. Coincidentally, a scientist in France, Erou, also invented the same aluminum smelting method later in 1886, so when future generations mentioned the electrolytic aluminum smelting method, the names of Hall and Erou were linked together.  The invention of the electrolytic aluminum method has made aluminum, an element that contains 8% of the earth's crust, become a material that provides many important uses for mankind. The continuous increase in aluminum production has also led to a rapid decline in aluminum prices, and has since entered the homes of ordinary people. By the 1960s, aluminum had surpassed copper in the world's non-ferrous metal production and ranked first. At this time, aluminum was no longer a plaything of princes and nobles, but its use was gradually expanding, including defense, aerospace, and Electricity, communications, and daily necessities such as pots and pans are all traces of aluminum, and different aluminum-containing compounds are also playing an important role in the fields of medicine, organic synthesis, and petroleum refining.   In the old days, Wang Xietang Qianyan flew into the homes of ordinary people. This line of poem is perfect to describe the development of aluminum. With the advancement of science and technology, aluminum will surely shine for mankind in a broader field.
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