Optimization of Industrial Aluminum Extrusion Process

by:Zeyi     2021-11-18
The optimization of aluminum extrusion process is important from the following aspects: such as: control of chemical composition, optimization of uniform annealing process of ingot, optimization of extrusion heat treatment process, and so on. 1 The optimization of chemical composition controls 6063-T5 construction industry aluminum materials must have certain mechanical functions. At the same time as other conditions, its tensile strength and yield strength increase with the increase of content. The important strengthening phase of 6063 Taijin is the Mg2Si phase. What should be the amount of MG, Si and Mg2Si? The Mg2Si phase is composed of two magnesium atoms and one silicon atom. The absolute atomic mass of magnesium is 24.3l and the absolute atomic mass of silicon is 28.09. Therefore, the mass ratio of magnesium to silicon in the Mg2Si compound is 1.73: 1.2 Optimizing the homogenization annealing process of ingots In the production of civil extruded profiles, the high temperature homogenization annealing standard of 6063 alloy is: 560±20℃, heat preservation 4-6h, and the cooling method is forced air cooling or water jet cooling. The homogenization treatment of the alloy can increase the extrusion speed. Compared with the ingot without homogenization treatment, the extrusion force may be reduced by 6%-10%. The cooling rate after homogenization has an important influence on the precipitation action of the tissue. For ingots that are rapidly cooled after soaking, almost all Mg2Si can be dissolved in the matrix, and the excess Si will also be dissolved or dispersed as small particles. Such ingots may be extruded rapidly at lower temperatures and obtain excellent mechanical properties and nominal brightness. 3 Optimization of extrusion and heat treatment process 3.1 Ingot heating For extrusion production, extrusion temperature is the most basic and most critical process factor. Extrusion temperature has a great influence on product quality, production efficiency, die life, energy consumption and so on. The most important problem of extrusion is the control of the metal temperature. From the beginning of the ingot heating to the quenching of the extruded profile, it is necessary to ensure that the soluble phase structure does not precipitate from the solid solution or show the dispersion of small particles. 3.2 Extrusion speed During the extrusion process, the extrusion speed must be carefully controlled. Extrusion speed has an important influence on deformation heat effect, deformation uniformity, recrystallization and solid solution process, product mechanical performance and product nominal quality. Extrusion speed is too fast, the product will show pitting, cracks and other deviations. At the same time, the extrusion speed is too fast to increase the unevenness of the metal deformation. The flow rate during extrusion depends on the alloy type and the shape, size and nominal condition of the profile. 3.3 On-machine quenching 6063-T5 quenching is to remove the Mg2Si solid-dissolved in the base metal at a high temperature and then quickly cool it to room temperature and be preserved. The cooling rate is often proportional to the strengthening phase content. The minimum cooling rate that the 6063 alloy can be strengthened is 38°C/min, so it is suitable for air-cooled quenching. Changing the number of rotations of the fan and the fan may change the cooling intensity, so that the temperature of the product before the tension straightening drops to below 60°C. 3.4 After exiting the die hole of the tension-straightened profile, each of them is towed by a tractor. When the traction machine is working, it applies a certain traction tension to the squeezing product and simultaneously moves with the product outflow speed. The goal of using the tractor is to reduce the irregularities and scratches during multi-line extrusion, and at the same time, it can also avoid the twisting and twisting of the profile after the die hole, which will bring trouble to the tension straightening. Tension straightening may not only eliminate the longitudinal irregularities of the product, but also reduce its residual stress, improve the strength characteristics and maintain its good name. 3.5 Artificial aging The aging treatment requires uniform temperature, and the temperature difference does not exceed ±3-5°C. The artificial aging temperature of 6063 alloy is 200 ℃ individually. The aging heat preservation time is 1-2 hours. In order to improve the mechanical performance, aging at 180-190℃ is also used for 3-4 hours, but the production efficiency will be reduced at this time. 3.6 The optimization of ingot length and the calculation methods of ingot length include volume method and quality method. By breaking the mathematical relationship, it is easy to select the best ingot specifications, which greatly improves the yield and yield of the profile.
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