Use, maintenance and management of aluminum extrusion die

by:Zeyi     2021-07-06
The mold cost of the aluminum profile manufacturer accounts for about 35% of the profile extrusion production cost. Therefore, the use, maintenance and management of aluminum extrusion dies directly determine whether an enterprise can produce profiles in a normal and qualified manner. The working conditions of the extrusion die in the production of profile extrusion are very harsh. It not only needs to withstand severe friction and wear under high temperature and high pressure, but also needs to withstand periodic loads. However, in actual production, there are still some molds that fail to reach the expected output during extrusion. In severe cases, they even squeeze less than 20 rods or use the machine less than 2 times to scrap them in advance, resulting in the use of expensive mold steel. The mold is far from achieving its due benefits. This phenomenon is currently widespread in many domestic aluminum profile production enterprises. To investigate its causes, we need to start with the following aspects.  1. The section of aluminum profile itself is ever-changing, and the aluminum extrusion industry has developed to this day. Aluminum alloy has important advantages such as light weight and good strength. At present, many industries have adopted aluminum profile instead of original materials. Due to the special profile of some profiles, the design and production of the mold are difficult due to the special profile section. If the conventional extrusion method is still used, it is often difficult to achieve the rated output of the mold, and a special process must be adopted to strictly control various production process parameters to perform normal production. In addition, some molds cannot be squeezed to the rated output due to the special profile section or quality problems of the mold itself. This requires the sales staff to fully communicate with the technical department and the mold factory when receiving the order. At the same time, the mold design and production department needs to continuously optimize mold design technology, improve mold production accuracy, and improve mold quality.   Second, select the appropriate extrusion model for production. Before extrusion production, it is necessary to fully calculate the profile section. According to the complexity of the profile section, the wall thickness and the extrusion coefficient λ, determine the tonnage of the extruder. The more complex the product structure, the more likely it is to cause insufficient local rigidity of the mold. It is difficult for the metal flow in the cavity to tend to be uniform, and accompanied by local stress concentration. When the profile is produced, it is easy to plug the mold and the car or form a twisted wave, and the mold is prone to elastic deformation, and in serious cases, plastic deformation may cause the mold to be directly scrapped.   3. Reasonably choose the billet and heating temperature. The alloy composition of the extruded ingot must be strictly controlled. At present, the general enterprise requires the grain size of the ingot to reach the first-class standard in order to enhance the plasticity and reduce the anisotropy. When there are pores, loose organization or central cracks in the ingot, the sudden release of gas during the extrusion process is similar to a blast, which makes the local working zone of the mold suddenly unloaded and loaded again, forming a local huge impact load, which has a great impact on the mold. Enterprises with conditions can homogenize the billet, and then forcefully cool it at 550-570C for 8 hours. The extrusion breakthrough pressure can be reduced by 7-10%, and the extrusion speed can be increased by about 15%.   Fourth, optimize the extrusion process. To scientifically extend the life of molds, the rational use of molds for production is an aspect that cannot be ignored. Due to the extremely harsh working conditions of the extrusion die, reasonable measures must be taken in the extrusion production to ensure the structure and performance of the die. 5. A reasonable surface nitriding treatment process must be carried out on the die before the use of the extrusion die. The surface nitriding treatment can greatly increase the surface hardness of the mold while maintaining sufficient toughness, so as to reduce the thermal wear when the mold is in use. It should be noted that the surface nitriding can not be completed at one time. During the mold service period, repeated nitriding treatments must be performed 3-4 times. Generally, the thickness of the nitriding layer is required to reach about 0.15mm. A more suitable nitriding process is the first nitriding after the mold enters the factory for inspection. At this time, since the structure of the nitrided layer is not stable, it should be nitrided again after 5-10 rods are extruded. After the second nitriding, 40-80 rods can be extruded. It is advisable to use no more than 100-120 rods after the third nitriding. 6. The working belt must be ground and polished before the mold is put on the machine. The working belt is generally required to be polished to a mirror surface. Check the flatness and verticality of the mold work belt before assembly.
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Further dialogue of Zeyi between the approaches, the chapter concludes, could lead to actionable advice on more robust policies that drive both structural change and competitiveness upgrading.
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