Aluminum alloys show different performance characteristics due to the addition of different metal elements. Among the various metal elements, the elements that have a greater impact on the properties of aluminum
alloys are copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), silicon (Si), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) ), etc., the following are the effects of several metal elements on the properties of aluminum alloys: copper (Cu) Cu is an important alloy element in aluminum alloys and has a certain solid solution strengthening effect. In addition, CuAl2 precipitated by aging has a significant aging strengthening effect . advantages: solid solution strengthening and aging strengthening effect, the strengthening effect is best when the copper content is 4% to 6.8%, so the copper content of most hard aluminum alloys is in this range. Increase the copper content, improve the fluidity, tensile strength and hardness of the alloy, so that the mechanical properties can be improved, and the machinability becomes better. Disadvantages: reduces corrosion resistance and shaping, increasing the tendency of hot cracking. Magnesium (Mg) The strengthening of aluminum by magnesium is remarkable. For every increase of 1% of magnesium, the tensile strength increases by approximately 34MPa. If adding less than 1% of manganese, the strengthening effect may be added. Therefore, adding manganese can reduce the magnesium content, and at the same time reduce the tendency of hot cracking. In addition, manganese can also precipitate the Mg5Alg compound evenly, improving the corrosion resistance and welding performance. Advantages: improves the tensile strength and yield limit, and improves the machinability of the alloy. Disadvantages: Mg2Si will make the casting brittle. The maximum solubility of silicon (Si) Mg2Si in aluminum is 1.85%, and it decreases with the decrease of temperature. In deformed aluminum alloys, silicon alone is added to aluminum plates only as welding materials, and silicon added to aluminum also has a certain strengthening effect. Advantages: improves the casting performance of the alloy. Silicon and aluminum can form a solid solution, which can improve the high temperature moldability of the alloy, reduce the shrinkage rate, and have no tendency to hot crack. Improve tensile strength, hardness, machinability and strength at high temperature, and reduce elongation. Disadvantages: The crystallized silicon (Si) is prone to hard spots of free silicon, which makes the machinability worse, and the high-silicon aluminum alloy has a serious erosion effect on the casting crucible. Iron (Fe) Advantages: The adhesion of aluminum alloy to the mold is very strong, especially when the iron content is less than 0.6%, that is, it is not easy to demold. When the iron content exceeds 0.6%, the sticking phenomenon is greatly reduced. Disadvantages: When the iron content in the aluminum alloy is too high, the iron exists in the alloy with the flake or needle-like structure of FeAl3, Fe2Al7 and Al-Si-Fe, forming metal compounds and forming hard spots. This structure will also reduce mechanical properties, increase thermal cracking, and make castings brittle. And when the iron (Fe) content exceeds 1.2%, the fluidity of the alloy will be reduced, the quality of the castings will be impaired, and the life of the metal components in the die-casting equipment will be shortened. Manganese (Mn) The maximum solubility of manganese in solid solution is 1.82%. The strength of the alloy increases continuously with the increase of solubility. When the manganese content is 08%, the elongation reaches the maximum. AI-Mn alloy is long and short age hardening alloy, that is, it cannot be strengthened by heat treatment. Advantages: The strength of the alloy increases with the increase in solubility. When the manganese content is 0.8%, the elongation reaches the maximum. Manganese (Mn) can prevent the recrystallization process of aluminum alloy, increase the recrystallization temperature, and can significantly refine the recrystallization grains. The refinement of the recrystallized grains is mainly caused by the MnAl6 compound dispersed particles to hinder the growth of the recrystallized grains. Another function of MnAl6 is to dissolve the impurity iron (Fe) to form (Fe, Mn)Al6, so that the flake or needle-like structure formed by iron in the aluminum alloy becomes a fine crystal structure and reduces the harmful effects of iron. Disadvantages: when the manganese content is too high, it will cause segregation. Nickel (Ni) Advantages: has a tendency to increase tensile strength and hardness, which has a great influence on corrosion resistance. Disadvantages: reduces corrosion resistance and thermal conductivity. Zinc (Zn) Advantages: Aluminum is added with zinc and magnesium at the same time to form a strengthening phase Mg/Zn2, which will have a significant strengthening effect on the alloy. Disadvantages: has a tendency to stress corrosion cracking.
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